What is quantum computing, how quantum computers work, its future, applications, how is it different from digital computers, and various other aspects…
The world of technology is expanding so much that machines are taking the place of humans. There was a time when the computer first arrived, and made a revolutionary difference. Due to the recent advancement of artificial intelligence and robots, computers have revamped in every field from medicines, treatment to weapons and machinery.
Today, no matter the field, whether it is education or space science, computers are used everywhere. Since computers evolved, their sizes are getting smaller, but the ability to work has increased dramatically.
You must have seen the recent lead in technology and noticed how fast it’s progressing in a short period. Along with it, another progress is running with a new technology – quantum computers.
It is believed by people that quantum computers are the future computers, which are going to be placed in our homes and some kind of workplaces in the coming years, but if we look into its capability, these computers can compute data at an unbelievable speed. Therefore it might be used for research and development of new technology which will require complex calculations. It might probably replace supercomputers.
In such a situation, we all must know what are quantum computers and how they can be different from present computers.
Check out – Is 5G dangerous for human health? 5G vs 4G
What are Quantum computers?
Quantum computers are the computer that is used to perform complex computations using the properties of quantum physics. Ex: Extracting encrypted data, finding the best possible route to find information, etc. It can successfully perform difficult tasks in a matter of minutes, which is impossible by using present computers.
There is a special reason why Quantum computers are completely different from the present digital computers and are powerful.
By running an existing computer program or any kind of calculation in a normal computer, it only uses the binary digits to hold data in the form of either 0 or 1 (bits). Whereas in the case of quantum computers, Qubits are used to hold data.
All kinds of information on our computer are stored in the form of bits. Binary digits are used to write programs in machine language that has two values 0 or 1. Computers can only understand these binary digits and complete the task accordingly.
The circuit of the computer consists of transistors that recognize these bits and by changing them into an electrical signal, data is given to all the parts.
Any software that is designed to run in the computer, after loading it the processor then converts it to machine level language. Then the computer completes the task by understanding the program.
What are Qubits?
In quantum computers, quantum digits are used instead of binary digits. Quantum digits are also known as Qubits. Only two values at a time are used in classical computers which can either have the value as 1 or 0.
But the value of the Qubit can be more than 0 and 1 at the same time. Qubit is constantly in a quantum state, and it can be in infinite numbers. However if we try to measure the value, it comes out to be either 0 or 1. This means that qubits can hold much information simultaneously or we can say that a single bit can exist in two or more places at the same time.
This unique quality makes a quantum computer so special, that its capacity and speed are also higher than other computers. It can also perform complex calculations much more easily and faster than ordinary computers.
Now let’s discuss exactly how Quantum computers work and its applications.
How do Quantum computers work?
Quantum computers use the properties of the quantum systems like superposition, entanglement on a computer chip to perform calculations.
The concept of quantum computers working came into the picture in mind of scientists when they understood that atoms are naturally complex calculators.
According to science, all atoms move around naturally in a certain spin like a magnetic needle in a compass. These atoms spin either upwards or downwards. This idea matches well with digital techniques that are present in a data sequence of 1 and 0.
The upward spin of an atom can be one and the downward spin can be zero. But if we look into the concept of atomic spin, a single atom can spin both sides (top and bottom) at the same time.
Because of this reason, they are not the same as normal bits in a digital computer, they are somewhat different. Hence it was given a name by the scientists as Qubits which can hold both 0 and 1 at once in a single bit.
It is said that the calculation speed of 40 Qubit quantum computers will be equal to today’s supercomputers and by the recent development in the quantum computing field it will be able to store and calculate more information than today’s supercomputers.
Many top companies have already started the research on Quantum computing technology like Accenture, Google Quantum AI lab, IBM research, etc.(check out these articles to know more about how quantum computers work)
Quantum computing is based on the laws of quantum physics. Qubits used in quantum computers emit a large amount of energy inside them, to utilize it effectively, the maximum number of Qubits is cooled at a temperature of less than zero which is colder than the temperature of space, if the temperature of these Qubits is not less than zero then they will not be in a position to work. That’s why programming works in quantum computing in a slightly different way, making it very complex.
And now let us know what is the future of quantum computer.
Future of Quantum computers and their benefits
In the twenty-first century, there is a lot of hope for a quantum computer. Ever since this computer came into existence, they are constantly becoming powerful. That is why, if one wants a computer for fast computing, then the other needs a powerful processing.
However, it is difficult to guess when the quantum computer will be ready. Because quantum computers are not so easy to build, it requires advanced tools and complex algorithms that we do not yet have.
Once a quantum computer is created, it will open any complex task and give us the output in a few seconds. But its algorithm is not so easy to make. One, it takes hard work and a lot of time to make it. So it is a little difficult to tell how long it will take to build a full-fledged quantum computer.
A lot of scientific research is being done on quantum computing which can go a long way for making it. Given the quantum computer’s parity, it is considered important from the security point of view, that is why it is being encouraged or invested by many companies.
Giant American companies such as Google, IBM, Intel, Microprocessors are doing research on quantum computers.
Google announced a quantum computer which is 100 million times faster than normal computers.
The Government of India has also formed Quantum Information Science and Technology to promote this research.
The number of skilled researchers is very less in the field of quantum computing. According to an estimation, there are around a thousand people in the world who are researching quantum computing.
Researchers believe that through quantum computer technology, communication, health care, artificial intelligence, agriculture, weather accuracy, and many more industries will have a huge improvement.
It is very capable of bringing change to our world.
Other sources to learn more about quantum computers: